The historical interaction between Christianity and Islam, in the field of comparative religion, connects fundamental ideas in Christianity with similar ones in Islam. Islam and Christianity share their origins in the Abrahamic tradition though Christianity predates Islam by six centuries. Islam accepts many aspects of Christianity as part of its faith - with some differences in interpretation, and rejects other aspects. Islam, Judaism, and Christianity are often collectively referred to as the Abrahamic religions.
The Qur'an on ChristianityEdit
The Qur'an says, among others, the following about the prescribed behavior towards Christians:
Be courteous when you argue with the People of the Book, except with those among them who do evil. Say: "We believe in that which is revealed to us and which was revealed to you. Our God and your God is one. To Him we surrender ourselves. - Quran:29:46
The following is a working list of quotes regarding Christians in the Qur'an. All quotes are from the translation of Dr. Muhammad Taqî-ud-Dîn Al-Hilâlî and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khân, published by the King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Qur'an, Madinah, K.S.A. All quotes feature only the verse in which Christians or Christianity are mentioned. The Qur'an should be consulted for proper understanding of context.
The Way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your Anger, nor of those who went astray (such as the Christians). - Quran:1:7
And mix not truth with falsehood, nor conceal the truth [i.e. Muhammed is Allâh's Messenger and his qualities are written in your Scriptures, the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] while you know (the truth). - Quran:2:42
And they say, 'None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian.' These are their own desires. Say (O Muhammed ), 'Produce your proof if you are truthful.' - Quran:2:111
As Abrahamic religionsEdit
- Main article: Abrahamic Religion
Christianity, Islam and Judaism are known as Abrahamic religions because of their common origin through Abraham. Muslims consider Ishmael, the firstborn son of Abraham, to be the "Father of the Arabs" and the ancestor of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abraham's second son, Isaac, is called "Father of the Hebrews". His story is told in the Book of Genesis.
Similarities between the Bible and the Qur'anEdit
- Main article: Biblical narratives and the Qur'an
Muslims believe that Moses was given the Tawrat (Torah in Hebrew), that David was given the Zabur (or Psalms) and that Jesus was given the Injil (Greek evangel, or Gospel) from the Abrahamic God (Allah in Arabic). Traditionally, Muslims have believed that parts of these teachings were eventually lost or distorted to produce what is now the Hebrew Bible and the Christian New Testament. Several events are present in both holy books in some form.
Views on JesusEdit
- Main article: Jesus
Template:See Although Islam teaches that Jesus (Isa) was a prophet, Muslims do not believe that he was the Son of God, that he is divine or part of a triune God. According to Muslims, Jesus was a human prophet who brought to mankind a closer relationship with God and each other.
Muslims believe that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, but disagree on the nature of Jesus' paternity in relation to the conception. Muslims believe the creation of Jesus was like the creation of Adam, they were both created by God without human fathers, but neither are seen as being the "sons of God" in the literal sense.
Islam and Christianity differ in their fundamental views in regard to the crucifixion and resurrection. Christians believe that Jesus was condemned to death by the Sanhedrin and the Roman prefect Pontius Pilate, physically crucified and resurrected. Muslims believe that Jesus was condemned to crucifixion and then miraculously saved:
Quran, Chapter 4
156: That they rejected Faith; that they uttered against Mary a grave false charge;
157: That they said in boast, "We killed Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah";- but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no certain knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not:-
158: Nay, Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise
The Catechism of the Catholic Church, the official doctrine document released by the Roman Catholic church, has this to say regarding Muslims:
"The Church's relationship with the Muslims: The plan of salvation also includes those who acknowledge the Creator, in the first place amongst whom are the Muslims; these profess to hold the faith of Abraham, and together with us they adore the one, merciful God, mankind's judge on the last day (apocalypse)." (CCC 841).
See also Edit
- A Common Word Between Us and You, a 2007 letter from prominent Muslim personalities to the leaders of Christian churches
- Chrislam, a syncretist religion
- Christian philosophy
- Islam and Judaism
- Islamic philosophy
- Islamic view of the Bible
- Medieval Christian view of Muhammad
- People of the Book
- Slideshow with audio clips from the "Paths to the Heart" Conference on Sufism and the Christian East that took place in Columbia, South Carolina on October 18-20, 2001
- Jesus and Christianity A comprehensive essay on the Muslim view of Jesus and Christianity
- Christian Churches of God articles/papers on Islam
- The Christian Muslim Forum
- "I'm Right, You're Wrong, Go To Hell" - Religions and the meeting of civilization By Bernard Lewis